Number 9

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Hemos pasado meses de incertidumbre, encerrados en nuestras casas, sin adivinar el futuro, sin ver un mañana –o eso era lo que nos parecía–, con el miedo a cuestas, con el silencio, evitando pronunciar la palabra para no hacerla real. Los nacidos en la segunda mitad del novecientos… vivimos una situación completamente nueva. Aún hoy hay nuevas zonas ‘rojas’ en muchas partes del mundo, nuevas cuarentenas, nuevas soledades, sentimientos para muchos casi desconocidos, que una gran mayoría parece no soportar, una realidad que es como una visión distópica de un futuro “dark”…

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On the contribution of ANLE to the new “Diccionario de la lengua española” (DLE)

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The use of “vosotros” as an identity symbol in “La Bandera Americana”

There is agreement among researchers that the vosotros pronoun does not currently exist in Latin American Spanish, and that this use had faded in America (although there are some disagreements regarding the date) by the late 19th century. This study examines the use of the vosotros pronoun in “La Bandera Americana,” a newspaper published in Albuquerque, New Mexico, between 1898 and 1935. Our analysis of the newspaper shows a statistically significant use of the vosotros pronoun in the advertisements published in the newspaper between 1901 and 1909, where vosotros covaries with the ustedes pronoun. The vosotros pronoun is present in the different market sectors, even in advertisements published by the same store in the same issue of the paper, which demonstrates a great linguistic variability of the Spanish language at the time. The use of the vosotros pronoun in variation with ustedes by the inhabitants of New Mexico was concomitant to their alignment with Peninsular Spanish (Gubitosi 2010, 2013). In light of the data analyzed, we believe that this particular use of the pronoun could have been motivated by a reaffirmation of the Hispanic identity already pointed out by historians, which coincides with the emergence of the periodiqueros movement at the end of the 19th century in New Mexico (Meléndez 1997, 2005).

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The Sociocommunal Prototypicality Paradigm and the Spanish of the United States

We aim to provide a different approach to the unusual USA coexistence of Spanish and English and the phenomena associated with creolization. Satisfactory treatment for both subjects is not found in the available dialectological models. Therefore, a pluralizing dialectology is proposed including creolistics - another type of dialectology - and the Pentadimensional Model of Sociocommunality (PMSC) derived from the Paradigm of Sociocommunal Prototypicality (PSCP). Four interacting factors were analyzed: (i) this coexistence is unique in its complexity; (ii) Spanish shows two parallel and related characteristics: a significant index of intervarietal intelligibility and an absence of extreme deviation from prototypicality; (iii) in spite of being the first language to reach North America, it has not undergone standardization; (iv) its quasi-relexification has been misinterpreted as creolization with the stigma associated with this nonstandard phenomenon. The application of the PSCP and the PMSC, its derivative, and a redefined sociodialectology lead to the proposition that any realization of the creole-dialect cline (not pidgin-creole) with community approval is valid. The theoretical and sociohistorical revisions of the concept of creolization under our proposals, lead to the conclusion that this set of processes and its results have always existed under specific sociocultural conditions often obtaining sociocommunal approval. Thus, its stigmatization is unjustified. Additionally, a non-traditional solution to USA Spanish standarization is suggested and as no significative morphosyntactic restructuration is found and only minor pragmatic-discursive ones exist, a creolistic interpretation is discarded. Therefore, both the USA Spanish-English coexistence and creolization can be seen from a sociocommunal compatible perspective.

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Language attitudes towards English in Tijuana

The purpose of this research is to document the linguistic attitudes that bilingual residents of Tijuana have towards English. I will illustrate the way a group of highly educated middle-class young adults from Tijuana share certain assumptions and expectations about English that do not necessarily coincide with the realities of all people in the region. Tijuana residents see English as a necessary but also compulsory skill for everyone who lives in the city. They consider this language as a lingua franca in business and tourism worldwide, so they conceive it as a tool that virtually alone guarantees the economic mobility of those who master it. However, these ideas about English are loaded with ambivalence. Residents in Tijuana, not only aspire to master English, but also to speak it like Native Americans, with no Mexican accent. The Mexican accent is perceived as a disadvantage and an element that must be fully eradicated when speaking English if you do not wish to be racialized or suffer from discrimination. My conclusion is that the linguistic attitudes of the bilingual speakers in Tijuana arise from their experience living in contact with the American culture and the international border, and from assuming the neoliberal capitalism project as common sense.

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I am a frontiersman

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Hard times

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Publishing criteria

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